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Officially Republic of the Union of Myanmar (formerly Burma) is an underdeveloped agrarian country ruled by an authoritarian military regime. The country's government suppresses all expression of opposition to its rule. After a long period of isolation, Myanmar has started to encourage tourism. Foreigners can expect to pay several times more than locals do for accommodations, domestic airfares, and entry to tourist sites. Tourist facilities in Rangoon, Bagan, Ngapali Beach, Inle Lake, and Mandalay are superior to tourist facilities in other parts of the country, where they are limited. Please note that visitors should travel with sufficient cash to cover their expenses for the duration of their visit. Traveler’s checks and credit cards are not accepted anywhere, and ATM machines are nonexistent in Myanmar . (See "Currency" and “U.S. Treasury Sanctions" below.) Read the Department of State's Background Notes on Myanmar for additional information.



Image of Myanmar
Country Name: Myanmar (formerly Burma)
Continent: Asia
Capital City: Rangoon & Nay Pyi Taw (Administrative Capital)
Boundary Countries:

Bangladesh, China, India, Laos, Thailand

Recommended Hospitals in Capital:
Main Cities:

Rangoon, Nay Pyi Taw, Prome, Dawei

Country Size: 678,500 sq km
Population: 47,382,633



Burmese, minority ethnic groups have their own languages

Currency: Kyat (MMK)
Predominant Religions:

Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic 1%), Muslim 4%, animist 1%, other 2%

National Holidays: Independence Day, 4 January (1948); Union Day, 12 February (1947)
Economic Status:

Myanmar, a resource-rich country, suffers from pervasive government controls, inefficient economic policies, and rural poverty. The junta took steps in the early 1990s to liberalize the economy after decades of failure under the "Burmese Way to Socialism," but those efforts stalled, and some of the liberalization measures were rescinded. Despite Myanmar's increasing oil and gas revenue, socio-economic conditions have deteriorated due to the regime's mismanagement of the economy.


Myanmar Armed Forces (Tatmadaw): Army, Navy, Air Force

US Presence:

U.S. Embassy Rangoon
110 University Ave
Kamayut Township
Rangoon, Burma
Phone: (95)-(1) 753-6509
Fax: (95)-(1)-751-1069

Document Requirements:

The Government of Myanmar strictly controls travel to, from, and within Myanmar.  Since October 1, 2006, Burmese authorities have often prohibited entry or exit at most land border crossings, unless the traveler is part of a package tour group that has received prior permission from the Burmese authorities.  A passport and visa are required for entry into Myanmar.  Travelers are required to show their passports with a valid visa at all airports, train stations, and hotels.  Security checkpoints are common outside of tourist areas.

Burmese authorities rarely issue visas to persons with occupations they deem “sensitive,” including journalists.  Many journalists and writers traveling to Myanmar on tourist visas have been denied entry.  Journalists -- and tourists mistaken for journalists -- have been harassed.  Some journalists have had film and notes confiscated upon leaving the country.
In an effort to prevent international child abduction, many governments have initiated procedures at entry/exit points.  These often include requiring documentary evidence of relationship and permission for the child's travel from the absent parent(s) or legal guardian. Having such documentation on hand, even if not required, may facilitate entry/departure.
Information about entry requirements as well as other information may be obtained from the Burmese Embassy (Embassy of the Union of Myanmar) at http://www.mewashingtondc.com/,  2300 S Street NW, Washington, DC  20008, telephone 202-332-4350 or the Permanent Burma Mission (Mission of Myanmar) to the U.N. 10 East 77th St., New York, NY 10021, (212-535-1311) 212-744-1271, fax 212-744-1290.

Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our web site.  For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information sheet. 

Major Airports:

Airports:  85, Airports w/paved runways:  21

Yangon International Airport (RGN/VYYY)
Yangon Airport, Myanmar, Mingaladon, Yangon, MYANMAR
Tel: +95 1 62712/3, +95 1 65377, +95 1 62702
Fax: +95 1 65124

Mandalay International Airport (MDL/VYMD)
Mandalay Airport, Myanmar, Tada-U, Mandalay, MYANMAR
Tel: +95 2 87301, +95 2 87401
Fax: +95 2 87300
Email: maninter@mptmail.net.mm
Customs Tel: +95 2 87528

Servicing Airlines:
Risks and Precautions:

Myanmar is a source country for men, women, and children trafficked to East and Southeast Asia for sexual exploitation, domestic service, and forced commercial labor; to a lesser extent, Myanmar is a country of transit and destination for women trafficked from China for sexual exploitation; internal trafficking of persons occurs primarily for labor in industrial zones and agricultural estates; internal trafficking of women and girls for sexual exploitation occurs from villages to urban centers and other areas; the military junta's economic mismanagement, human rights abuses, and policy of using forced labor are driving factors behind Myanmar's large trafficking problem
**tier rating: Tier 3- Myanmar does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so. Myanmar remains world's second largest producer of illicit opium.

Mortality Statistics:

Infant MR total:  61.85 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth: TOTAL 60.97 years (male 58.07/female 64.03)

Immunization Indicators:

Required: None
Recommended: Hep A & B, Japanese encephalitis, Rabies, Typhoid, Polio
Boosters: MMR, DPT

Infectious Disease Concerns:

degree of risk: very high
Dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, Japanese encephalitis, and plague are diseases carried by insects that also occur in this region. Protecting yourself against insect bites (see below) will help to prevent these diseases.
Do not swim in fresh water (except in well-chlorinated swimming pools) to avoid infection with schistosomiasis.  Leptospirosis, a bacterial infection often contracted through recreational water activities in contaminated water, such as kayaking, is common in tropical areas of Southeast Asia. (For more information, please see Swimming and Recreational Water Safety.) An outbreak was reported in Borneo among expedition travelers in 2000.

Overall Quality of Medical Services:

Medical facilities in Myanmar are inadequate for even routine medical care. There are few trained medical personnel. Most foreign drugs on sale have been smuggled into the country, and many are counterfeit or adulterated and thus unsafe to use. HIV/AIDS is widespread among high-risk populations such as prostitutes and illegal drug users. Malaria, tuberculosis, hepatitis, and other infectious diseases are endemic in most parts of the country.

Providers in Network:
Direct Payment: 1
Referrals: 5
View Network Providers
Recent Medical Threats/ Concerns/Warnings:

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) continues to cause outbreaks in domestic and wild bird populations and has caused human cases in several countries in Southeast Asia. In 2006, the virus continued to spread in poultry populations in Indonesia.  Avoid all direct contact with birds, including domestic poultry (such as chickens and ducks) and wild birds, and avoid places such as poultry farms and bird markets where live birds are raised or kept.  For a current list of countries reporting outbreaks of H5N1 among poultry and/or wild birds, view updates from the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), and for total numbers of confirmed human cases of H5N1 virus by country see the World Health Organization (WHO) Avian Influenza website.
Measles transmission persists in the region, although vaccination coverage is improving in some countries in Southeast Asia. Influenza infections can occur throughout the year in tropical areas.
Polio resurfaced in Indonesia in 2005. Imported cases in neighboring countries have occasionally occurred.

Communications Info:

Country Calling Code:  +95
Internet Country Code:  .mm


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